Surfactant is a complex naturally occurring substance made of lipids & proteins that is produced in the lungs. It reduces the surface tension of fluid in the lungs & helps make the small air sacs in the
lungs (alveoli ) stable & keeps them from collapsing when baby exhales. In preparation for breathing air fetuses begin making surfactant while still in the womb. Babies that are born very prematurely lack adequate surfactant. Due to lack of surfactant lungs of these premature babies start collapsing & baby develop breathing difficulty with in few hours after birth. If surfactant is administered to these babies soon after birth their chances of survival improves considerably.